Name and location of repository
Level of description
Cooperative Extension Service Records
- 1915-2019 (Creation)
47.26 linear feet (46 record boxes, 3 document cases)
Name of creator
In 1914, the United States Congress passed the Smith-Lever Act. This act proposed to set up a system of general demonstrations throughout the country, and the agent in the field of the department and the college provided agricultural information to the rural population.
The basic elements of extension had their inception during the late 1880's when farmers in the area began calling on agricultural experts at the college to talk to them and show them the best methods for raising crops. Farmers' Institutes, the first regular meetings that were held in 1888, were the medium through which such information was communicated. These institutes had grown out of local farmers' organizational gatherings in the Territory since about 1880. The institutes were held both at the college and throughout the state, the attendance of South Dakota Agricultural College [SDAC] faculty members at these assemblages being authorized by the Regents and Trustees.
In 1889 and in 1891 the Legislature enacted laws providing for state assistance to Farmers' Institutes. The Board of Trustees for the Agricultural College was authorized to conduct the institutes at different places in the state. In 1894, the state government began making appropriations for these meetings although the money available was too small to have much effect. Many local communities decided to take over this financial responsibility. After the Smith-Lever Act was enacted, the Farmers' Institutes were discontinued.
In 1912, a county agent was appointed to serve Brown County. The agent was named under a cooperative agreement among the Better Farming Association, the United States Department of Agriculture, and South Dakota State College. In 1913, additional counties took up county agent work and in 1914, Dean G. L. Brown signed, on behalf of the college, a memorandum of agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. Through the Smith-Lever Act, this provided for contributions to extension funds by the federal government, the state of South Dakota, and local communities. State College contracted to maintain a Division of Extension, and the USDA agreed to provide a States' Relation Service to administer the funds and cooperate with extension work. Either the college or the Department of Agriculture could nullify this arrangement.
At first, considerable personal service was given farmers and homemakers. Later the trend was toward working with organizational groups. There was once a close tie between Extension and the Farm Bureau Federation. The Farm Bureau had been started with the specific purpose of cooperating with extension work. The state College Extension Service took an active role in organizing Farm Bureaus in the state. During the 1920's, other agricultural organizations began to challenge this intimate relationship. Their argument was that the county agent was a public servant and that it should not be part of his job to promote organizations, which frequently espoused public policies of a controversial character. However, it was not until 1935 that the Farm Bureau ceased to be the official cooperating organization with extension.
Club and home demonstration work have been two major areas of the Extension Service. Boys' and girls' club work began in 1913 and was subsequently assisted by Smith-Lever funds. This legislation further provided for home demonstration work. Before that time, homemakers' clubs had been held in connection with Farmers' Institutes. Several women had been employed in the Extension Service as demonstrators prior to the appointment of the first regular home demonstration agent. Among the early topics at home demonstration meetings were poultry raising, use of the fireless cooker, clothing, and food values. Changing technology and economic conditions have caused subjects to vary.
ontributions of specialists have supplemented those of county agents. From the first, the college undertook to supply specialized as well as general agricultural information to those writing for it, but farmers felt the need for personal interviews and demonstration in highly technical problems as well as the more generalized subjects that were the province of county agents. Shortly after the Smith-Lever Act went into effect, a dairy specialist became the extension department's first specialist. Extension has had specialists in wide areas, including breeding, farm records, and farm building construction. / The overall mission of the Cooperative Extension Service is to disseminate and encourage the application of research-generated knowledge and leadership techniques to individuals, families and communities in order to improve agriculture and strengthen the South Dakota family and community. The Cooperative Extension Service is the off-campus informal educational function of the College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences and the College of Family and Consumer Sciences.
The service extends the South Dakota State University campus to every community and the advantages of higher education to all people. The extension staff is dedicated to the task of assisting individuals and groups to meet the challenges of change in farming, ranching, marketing, the home, state and nation. They use the press, radio, television, satellite, interactive audio-visual, educational publications, group methods, and individual contacts to inform and teach. Through its extension agents and specialists, the Cooperative Extension Service disseminates the findings of research and encourages the application of knowledge to solution of problems encountered in everyday living across the entire state.
Content and structure elements
Scope and content
This collection is composed of records generated by the Cooperative Extension Service and includes general administrative materials, 4-H publications, personnel communications, news releases, South Dakota AgrAbility Project, and Cooperative Extension publications.
The Administrative records are composed of Extension correspondence with R. Milton Rich, Area Development Specialist, regarding the adult education program in 1964, and proposals for a division of continuing study, extension, and terminal education. Also included are Cooperative Extension Impact Statements for the West District and a history and philosophy of the service.
The 4-H publications are composed mainly of 4-H club publications directed at members and leaders of statewide 4-H clubs. These include newsletters, project guides, forms, reports, and other informative pamphlets. Also included is a state commemorative document noting the centennial of 4-H and club member record books from the 1930’s.
The personnel communications are composed of published items, which were distributed to extension personnel across the state. These items were bound, however, no system of arrangement could be determined except by year. The earlier items seem to have less arrangement than the more recent items. From about 1977, the items seem to be arranged by subject which covers a broad area including: 4-H, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering, animal science, calendar of events, dairy, Farm and Ranch News, home economics, horticulture/forestry, plant science, State Fair, and veterinary science. Also included are some news releases that were left with this sub-group because they were bound together. In 2004, this material was microfilmed so material was unbound. These items are arranged first chronologically by year then alphabetically by the title on the bound item.
This collection is housed at an off-site facility. Requests to view this material must be made at least 24 hours in advance. Some material is available in microfilm.
The news releases are composed of news releases distributed to the media by Extension Services. These cover all areas of extension during 1939-48. In 2004, this material was microfilmed so material was unbound. These items are arranged first chronologically by year then alphabetically by the title on the bound item.
This material is housed at an off-site facility. Requests to view this material must be made at least 24 hours in advance. Some material is available in microfilm.
The publications are composed of publications and newsletters produced by the Extension Service. Included are circulars, handbooks, leaflets, newsletters, reports, series, and miscellaneous items.
The National AgrAbility Project was established through a provision of the 1990 Farm Bill. Congress began funding the project in 1991. The goal is to inform, educate and assist individuals with disabilities and their families.
The South Dakota AgrAbility Project is a cooperative programming effort between South Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service, Easter Seals of South Dakota, and Avera McKennan Hospital and University Health Center.
System of arrangement
Conditions of access and use elements
Conditions governing access
This collection is open to researchers without restrictions. The materials in the Archives do not circulate and may be used in-house only.
Researchers conducting extensive research are asked to make an advance appointment to access archival material. Please call or e-mail prior to visiting the collection and indicate as much detail as possible about a particular topic and intended use.
Twenty-four hours advance notice is required for materials stored offsite.
Conditions governing reproduction
South Dakota State University supports access to the materials, published and unpublished, in its collections. Nonetheless, access to some items may be restricted as a result of their fragile condition or by contractual agreements with donors.
Languages of the material
Scripts of the material
Language and script notes
Uploaded finding aid
Immediate source of acquisition
Appraisal, destruction and scheduling information
Related materials elements
Existence and location of originals
Existence and location of copies
Related archival materials
- Extension publications on SDSU's institutional repository, Open Prairie: https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/extension/
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